Just like any other part of the body, the excretory system or the renal system can be a victim to several diseases. These include infections, infections, calculi obstruction, malignant and benign tumors, and more.
Such diseases can impact the process of waste elimination among other things. Therefore, reaching a finale of more health problems. So, without further ado, let’s dive into the common diseases of the excretory system that you should be aware about:
1. Urinary tract infection (UTIs)
These surface when bacteria enter the urinary tract. These can affect the urethra, bladder, or the kidneys. Before proceeding, let’s clarify that the bladder is the part of your excretory or renal system that stores urine until it is excreted.
As is common knowledge, the kidneys do that heavy lifting job of filtering the unwanted components from your blood. Similarly, the urethra is that area which excretes urine. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) tend to be more common in women than men. About 8.1 million Americans can infected by UTIs every year in the US. Typically, these can be treated with antibiotics.
2. Kidney failure
Kidney failure can also be addressed by the name of renal failure. It occurs when the one or both of the kidneys cease to function. Since kidney are responsible for filtering urine, a failure of one or both the kidneys can seriously hinder or stop the filtration process.
Renal failure can occur for numerous reasons. These include diabetes, kidney stones, damaged tubules, chronic drug intake, and cardiac effects to name a few. Moreover, kidney failures can be of two kinds namely acute and chronic.
Chronic kidney failure happens when the kidney’s functioning declines over time. On the flip side, acute renal failure occurs when the kidney fails all of a sudden. Treatment for this excretory system concern include:
- Kidney transplant surgery
- Antihypertensive drugs
- Antihypertensive drugs
Uremia happens when there are high concentrations of non-protein nitrogen such as uric acid, urea, and creatinine. Patients of uremia show a substantial accumulation of urea in the blood.
Such a condition can make it harder for the kidneys to work as they add strain on them to filter the excess levels of non-protein nitrogen compounds from the body. Therefore, it can lead to renal failure. Patients can get the excess urea removed by a process titled hemodialysis.
4. Kidney stone
Kidney stones are one of the common diseases of the excretory system. The stones can also be called as renal calculi, as they are formed with the accumulation of uric acid crystals or calcium within the kidneys.
These stones tend to remain within the kidney. There are multiple causes of renal calculi. These include infections, reduced elimination or excessive consumption of calcium. Kidney stones can also occur due to reduced intake of water.
Furthermore, there are several symptoms that signify kidney stones. These entail vomiting, abdominal and back cramps, colic pain, and nausea. The treatments methods include:
- Attempts at electrolyte balance
5. Interstitial cystitis (IC)
Interstitial cystitis is also known as painful bladder syndrome. This condition primarily affects women is a chronic condition of the bladder that causes pain and pressure in the bladder. At times, it can also culminate in pelvic pain.
IC can lead to bladder scarring and reduce the elasticity of the bladder as well. Certain people with the condition also have a defect in the protective lining of their bladder, which is medically known as epithelium.
Prostatitis is characterized by a swelling of the prostate gland present in men. Thus, it comes among the diseases of the excretory system that impact only men. It usually strikes when men are in their older age bracket. The symptoms of prostatitis include pelvic pain, urinary frequency and urgency, as well as pain while urinating.
Polyuria is a term that is given to frequent or excessive passage of urine. This occurs when the kidney can’t filter and reabsorb the water from the urine. It is not a condition in itself but it occurs as an indication of some other body condition such as diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus.
An excess accumulation of fluid in the tissues is called as oedema. It is an increase in the volume of the fluids that exist outside the cells (extracellular). Oedema commonly occurs when there is an excess of sodium ions.
9. Diabetes Insipidus
Diabetes Insipidus occurs due to a deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH). This hormone is secreted from pituitary gland’s posterior lobe. ADH is responsible for the reabsorption of the water by the distill parts of the nephrons or kidney tubules.
However, a shortage of the hormone means that this process is not taking place properly, which leads to diabetes insipidus. The condition is characterized by intense thirst and excessive urine. This happens because the water is not being reabsorbed by the kidney tubules.
This condition surfaces due to the inflammation of the urethra. The urethra is a tube that connects the bladder and helps expel urine as mentioned above too. Urethritis mostly occurs due to bacteria that may come from sexual or non-sexual sources.
Some of the common symptoms of urethritis include pain in the abdomen that occurs during urination and afterward, frequent urination, and burning sensation during urination. Treatment for this condition includes the use of antibiotics to get rid of the bacteria and use of alkaline syrups to neutralize the acidity of urine which causes burning sensation.
11. Kidney cysts
Kidney cysts also common among the diseases of the excretory system. These are fluid-filled outgrowth on the kidney that appear either in clusters or individually. About 25% of the people over the age of 40 develop simple kidney cysts.
Kidneys can be broadly divided into simple and complex cysts. Simple cysts range between the size of 2-10 cm and occur from the renal parenchyma. Moreover, complex cysts are hyper-dense version that have thickened walls, increased calcifications, and nodular outgrowths. These may result in cancer.
12. Ulcerative colitis
This is another excretory system disease. However, it comes under bowel disease. It leads to inflammatory patches in the colon and rectum. There are multiple types of ulcerative colitis. These include proctosigmoiditis, left-sided colitis, pan-ulcerative colitis, and ulcerative proctitis.
13. Crohn’s disease
This disease impacts the end portion of the small intestine where the small intestine meets the colon. In some cases, greyish or reddish patches may surface along the thick walls of the bowel, which is known as granulomatous inflammation.
The different times of Crohn’s disease include iileitis, jejunoiletis, illeitis, Crohn’s granulomatous colitis, and gastroduodenal Crohn’s disease.